Friday, March 3, 2017

Phase 3, week 5

Hi all

You have three more blog posts before the Phase 3 essay, including this one.

The assignment for the essay is to compare the two news sources, and you have to cover any five of the ten things below.  Before you start this week, check what you've already covered, then look for evidence to address things you don't have yet.

5 questions from Center for Media Literacy:
  • “Who created this message?”
  • “What creative techniques are being used to attract my attention?”
  • “How might different people understand this message differently from me?"
  • “What lifestyles, values and points of view are represented in; or omitted from, this message?”
  • “Why is this message being sent?"

General discussion points

  • Source's general position on the conflict
  • amount of coverage
  • layout/presentation,
  • language (complicated? objective?),
  • publication (origin, funding, distribution/pageviews, international variants).

We will talk about this, and more, next Tuesday!

Good luck
Mr. H


  1. Sophie Lemmerman - Kashmir conflict

    “The Daily Pakistan” and the “Times of India” both published an article on March 3, 2017 regarding the Indus Water Treaty. Although the articles differ in length, the content remains for the most part coherent: both state that a meeting of the Permanent Indus Commission (a “bilateral commission consisting of officials from India and Pakistan, created to implement and manage the goals and objectives and outlines of the Indus Waters Treaty” (Wikipedia).) will be held before the end of the month. However, the "Daily Pakistan" article is shorter and less informative. Furthermore, it makes India look like the “bad guy” in the situation: “After the recent upsurge in Indian Occupied Kashmir (IOK), water has once again become a divisive issue for the countries” (Daily Pakistan). The "Times of India," on the other hand, remains more impartial: “Under the treaty, it is required that India and Pakistan meet every financial year. If we don't, then it is going to be a violation of the pact.” Nevertheless, the article definitely glorifies India by insisting that the country is receptive and diplomatic: “Pakistan has issues with some other Indian projects too. Whatever be their concern, India is always ready to discuss the issues” (Times of India). Despite the apparent inclinations of these two articles, they both remain focused on delivering the news for what it is. The images featured in both are relatively neutral.



    Times of India:

    Daily Pakistan:

  2. Elise- War in Yemen

    From the differences we’ve seen so far in terms of position on the conflict, varying amounts of coverage, webpage layout, and language, we can infer possibilities as to the different audiences these two news sources attract.
    The National is the most objective of the two (and their motto is literally, “The facts as they are”), and offers reliable information, diverse in the stances that it takes. Despite it being a UAE based outlet (a co-leading country of the Coalition), it tries to approach the conflict from a more international point of view, covering stories about what both the Outhits and the Coalition have done wrong, reporting ISIS and AQAP terrorist attacks, as well as the very serious humanitarian situation caused by the war. Its goal is to report and inform in the mot didactic way.
    From this we can infer that the audience is of a larger, international scale, and although provides a reliable local journalism, is most likely not a news source that solely Yemenis, and other countries involved in the conflict, read.
    According to the Dubai Press Club, Gulf News, is the most read newspaper in the UAE. It is the leading English language newspaper of the region, with “1 300 000 visits to the website per month, and an average daily circulation of 109 905 in print”, confirm the BPA Worldwide audit. According to World meters, the UAE population is over 9 000 000, so we’re able to assume from the 1 300 000 webpage views that Gulf News is not particularly recognized on an international scale. Whether it be through pejorative language, Ajouter au dictionnaire, or shocking headlines, its consistently subjective way of reporting news of the Yemeni conflict show the reader that they side with the Coalition, and their message to their mostly UAE based audience is an anti-Houthi one.

  3. Pierre-Malo Vienney -- Violence in DRC

    On February 9 and February 13, 101 militiamen from Kamwina Nsapu were killed by Congolese soldiers, said the UN. This event and information is transmitted differently through Africatime and News24.
    The article in Africatime, reported and edited by Tom Miles, Louise Ireland and Pritha Sarkar, and the News24 article, by the Associated Press, clearly state the main information that is going to be developed in the article: “Congolese soldiers kill at least 101 in militia clashes: U.N.” and “DRC investigates video showing soldiers shooting militia. Africatime illustrates the article with an image placed at the beginning of the paper of soldiers on a tank to grab the reader’s eye and incites him to learn more about the event. On the other hand, News24 only shows a picture of the DRC flag. The concise paragraphs of one sentence separated by a blank line make the reading easier; it lets the reader understand the event without being overwhelmed by the amount of text. This technique is used by both news sources. The quotes that are inserted in the article give a lively aspect to the reading. Although the articles seem to be impartial, they both show their indignation by blaming the disproportionate implication of the soldiers: “The soldiers fired indiscriminately with machine guns when they saw the militia fighters, who were armed mainly with machetes and spears.” News24 develops the UN’s response to the attack: "would suggest excessive and disproportionate use of force by the soldiers."

  4. Jacques Singer. North Korea

    Over the past two weeks, the western media’s attention has focused on Kim Jong Un’s brother’s mysterious murder, by a casual, cold-blooded chemical weapon attack in a busy airport. However, KCNA has still not mentioned his death, and it doesn’t seem likely to mention it any time soon. In article after article, the BBC (as well as most western media) insists on blaming the government of the DPRK for his murder. For instance, the latest video article entitled : “Why was North Korea's Kim Jong-nam killed?” ("Why Was North Korea's Kim Jong-nam Killed?" BBC News. BBC, 1 Mar. 2017. Web. 04 Mar. 2017.) analyzes the suspected perpetrator of the crime and the motivation behind it. This intense coverage seeks to draw the attention of a global audience to the ruthlessness of the DPRK’s authoritarian leadership. This reemphasizes the stark contrast between the western democratic political system and the North Korean totalitarian communist and oppressive government. As a result of such coverage, readers tend to fear and criticize the ruling party in North Korea, which appears as an oppressed, violent and dangerous country.

    On KCNA, all articles tend to deviate the attention from the murder: there are numerous articles reporting on topics entirely different but none concerning the brother’s death. For example, the article : “Efforts Made for Producing New Farm Machines” (“Efforts Made for Producing New Farm Machines." KCNA. KCNA, 1 Mar. 2017. Web. 1 Mar. 2017.) highlights the technological progress North Korea is making and how it is beneficial for their economy and society. The message being sent is hence propaganda which aims to prove to the population and the rest of the world that DRPK’s severe political system is worth it and is flawless.

  5. Ito - Burundi
    “U.N. chief urges Burundi parties to participate in peace talks” says the only recent non-economics related article in Reuters’ coverage of Burundi. Although there is no blatant display of bias, the article only cites opinions from the U.N. Secretary General Antonio Guterres who seems to want to reason Burundi’s government officials. The article briefly states that “the government, which has repeatedly accused the U.N. of bias, said it objected to the presence of senior U.N. adviser Benomar Jamal” (Miriri, Feb 25), but it presents this opinion as invalid compared to that of the U.N. chief. Reuters wants its readers to view Burundi’s government as irresponsible.
    Iwacu, on the other hand, calls its article “Arusha, round of all surprises”, and presents a detailed coverage of the different opinions of various parties concerned by the conference. It shows that the government’s reason for not attending the peace talks was also that some of the people invited were not official political party leaders and some of them had formerly organized a coup against the government. As for the government’s criticism of the UN, multiple articles by Iwacu show a growing outrage against “biased” UN reports from groups like the National Youth Council, as well as the UN’s point of view, which includes concern about the “deterioration of human rights” in the country. As an insider view on the conflict, Iwacu seems to want to present all of the complexities of the situation.

  6. North Korea
    Kelcie Bons
    The amount of coverage of CNN is more important than Fox News': from march 1 to march 5 CNN has posted 8 news articles/videos and Fox News 6. The presentation of Fox News is more disorganised when it comes to the different sections of the website because everything Fox is together not just Fox News. The different sections within the news part are entertainement, health, lifestyle, US, buisness, science, travel... This shows that the news source is for a variety of interests and not incredibly international. There is publicity on the side all the time proposing other news to look at, mainly news about the American government. This shows that their most popular news are about the American government. CNN has a more organised general layout without any publicity or more things than just the articles about the subject that is being looked at. It is more international as we can see with the different categories that are the different areas of the world with some countries that are covered more and therefore have their own section (China and the US).
    The different articles on North Korea are more organised when it comes to seperating the information. For example when it comes to articles from March 1 to March 5 around Kim Jong Nam's murder Fox News has two different stories that show a clear change "Suspects charged in killing" and "Malaysia releases North Korean" and each story is also covered with a video. On the other hand, CNN has posted 7 articles about the conflict which means there is a bit more information but mainly a lot of repitition.

  7. David Ripayre – The Uyghur Conflict in China

    The media coverage over the Uyghur conflict in China is all about appearances and China’s position in the conflict.
    On one hand, American or other rival countries news sources like The Uyghur American Association try to give a bad image of China, who supposedly does not respect human rights, Uyghur rights in particular. This news source concentrates solely on the Uyghur conflict leading to an important media coverage, the language is completely subjective, every post targets Chinese government or media supporting Uyghur rights. Recurrent words in headlines are: “discrimination”, “massacre”, “repression” and “human rights”, these words are directed towards an international audience, the objective is to spread widely news of Chinese acts.
    On the other hand, Xinhua news is the national Chinese news source, tied to the government there goal is to save appearances by emphasizing on improvement made in the Xinjiang region, the overall media coverage is quite low, they concentrate on Uyghur terrorist actions giving responsibility to Uyghur population. Their headlines insist on improvement but only represent Chinese population they avoid any imagery of Uyghurs. There public is similar to the other news outlets as they are both trying to convince international audience of there one opinion on china’s acts.
    In recent news outlets by The Uyghur American Association they respond to Xinhua accusing them of false news.

  8. Julie Clar - Boko Haram in Nigeria

    This week, The Guardian covered the death of three Boko Haram suicide bombers, attacks in Chibok, and the death of eighteen Boko Haram insurgents killed by the Nigerian troops. Aljazeera did not cover this information but instead chose to publish an article called “World's most neglected crisis rages on,” referring to the humanitarian crisis of Boko Haram in Nigeria. This is ironic because instead of talking about how the crisis is largely neglected, maybe Aljazeera should simply start covering the conflict regularly as to inform its readers of its importance. Aljazeera chose to cover this because a humanitarian conference is taking place in Norway, gathering occidental countries such as the United States and Germany. After the publication of an article called “UN demands action as famine looms in three countries,” it seems that Aljazeera prefers to focus on the famine in Nigeria caused by Boko Haram insurgency rather than the conflict itself.
    The Guardian is owned by a member of an ethnic minority and has a national outlook in terms of reach and content. “Whether it has no afiliation to any interest group is difficult to decide given the complexity of the Nigerian society (1)”. However, it has been accused of discrimination against the Igbo people, an indigenous linguistic and cultural tribe in southern Nigeria (1). The newspaper is mostly read by the educated part of the Nigerian population and has been described as "Nigeria's most respected newspaper (2)". The language used by both The Guardian and Aljazeera appears to be objective and impartial.

  9. Matteo Valderrama- DRC conflict
    On March 1st, both news sources, Anadolu agency and IBTimes covered a story stating that 40 protesters were killed by DRC military forces in December which is denounced in a UN report calling for sanctions on the DRC government. On top of this more than 917 civilians were arrested including children and women.
    The article written by Anadolu Agency’s Pascal Mulegwa, on site, is very straight-to-the-point. On occasion, his sentences are incomplete only relaying the most important facts as show the title of his article: “DRC military killed 40 protesters in December 2016: UN.” In this headline he states the important facts as well as the origin of the information, here the UN. The structure of the article is of the same manner, often jumping to the next line with short, concise sentences just giving out essential information.
    However, in the article done by IBTimes’ Elsa Buchanan, a specialist in Central Africa who covers most of the DRC stories for IBTimes, the article is much longer. The sentences are much more embellished and complete as shows the title of the article: “ DRC Security Forces Killed 40 Protesters in Two Weeks as Kabila was Due to Stand-Down, Says UN.” This title relays the same information as did the one from Anadolu Agency however the sentence is much more complete. This is also the case with the rest of the article. The information is exactly the same however the paragraphs in this article are much more developed.
    Furthermore, IBTimes add on to their article with extra images and video that add on to the information and the context of the story while Anadolu Agency articles often only rely on one image illustrating the article.

  10. Marc de Laportalière- Tensions in East China Sea
    This week, neither the Japan Times nor the Diplomat covered the East China Sea Tensions, but both covered Taiwanese news. The two articles speak of Tsai Ing-Wen, the Taiwanese president, though their views are different. The Times’ article starts off talking about the 228 Incident, which is the first combat for Taiwanese Independence against the KMT after Japan lost the island to China. It gives some history but rapidly veers to the current president. The positive light in which it shows Tsai Ing-Wen, who strongly supports Taiwanese Independence shows that the author is fiercely pro-Independence. By extension, through the publication, that the entire journal is too, as this is coverage by a Japanese journal of another country’s celebration.
    The Diplomat’s article is less extreme in its position. It starts by talking about Ing-Wen’s loss of favor among the Taiwanese population. They start to suppose that this means that a larger part of the population is starting to be pro-unification. The primary reason mentioned is the economic situation in Taiwan, which is getting worse due to Chinese relations and trade. But towards the end, there is a reversal, with the author showing that there is still strong support for the president. This makes it seem as if the author is not sure of his stance, and tries to cover both ends of the problems, showing a seemingly unbiased opinion.

    Winglee, Michelle. "On Taiwan, the Honeymoon Is Over." The Diplomat. The Diplomat, 04 Mar. 2017. Web. 05 Mar. 2017. .

    Anonymous "70th Anniversary of '228 Incident'." The Japan Times. Google, 04 Mar. 2017. Web. 05 Mar. 2017. .

  11. Taliban in Afghanistan - Theodore FEVRE

    As explained in their bio, Aljazeera "bring topics to life that often go underreported" and this is perfectly contrasted with CNN's lack of reporting "the latest news". On the 2nd of March the Taliban group carried out a bombing as well as a shooting in the country's capital which resulted in 16 deaths. Creating an "Aljazeera English" news channel is an example of their goal to inform the majority of the world. They do so by using graphic pictures of events, simple language, as well as translating their original arabic news into english.

    CNN on the other hand do not think the same way. CNN did not post an article on this event, but it was not the only one. In fact, in the past two weeks two Taliban attacks have occurred in Afghanistan, the assassination of a senior Taliban leader by a US drone and ISIS's push towards Pakistan which complicates Trump's promise to "totally destroy" them; and CNN did not cover any one of these events. Even though these events concern the US majorly, CNN choose to not publish articles on them. The only explanation is that the American population is not interested in the Afghanistan conflict anymore and by consequence, CNN will voluntarily ignore these events. The only event based on Afghanistan that they mentioned is the demonstration in London against the war in Afghanistan.

    We can therefore conclude that if its abroad and is history, CNN will choose to ignore the events even if it concerns them. Whereas Aljazeera choose to inform the most people possible on a variety of current political preoccupations.

  12. Marine Tallon - South China Sea

    About a week ago, on 22 February, China Daily accused the US Navy of anticipating “provocative moves”, sending a nuclear-powered USS Carl Vinson for a “routine operation in the South China Sea”, “despite China’s strong opposition” according to China Daily. Beijing believed this move was “meant to challenge China’s sovereignty claims over some islands and reefs in those waters”. China Daily then stated that this move was Trump signaling that he has “no intention of respecting the regional countries’ efforts to maintain peace and stability in the zone of habitual tension. The long article dedicated to Beijing’s strong feeling of provocation, China Daily then states that the US Navy aimed at “containing China’s rise and maintaining the US’ hegemonic status in Asia”.
    According to China Daily, the US has played a very aggressive and provocative card, whereas in the Fox News, the story has barely been covered as the journal vaguely and rapidly states that an aircraft carrier patrolled in the South China Sea for “routine operations”. The main purpose of the article was to state that China had built new structures that could “potentially house surface-to-air missiles on three of its artificial islands”.
    Throughout these two articles, we distinguish clearly both of the country’s priorities and how opposed they are, taking each and every of their actions as potential threats.

    China Daily:
    Fox News:

  13. Pierre-Malo Violence in DRC

    Africatime is a Congolese newspaper that gives daily updates about the main events that occurred especially in DRC. In terms of layout, the upper presentation bar shows the name of the newspaper in white letters on a flashy blue background. The logo is an image of the African continent filled in with the DRC flag colors. On the homepage, the headlines are presented one after the other and illustrated with a picture that grabs the attention. The title giving the main topic and the beginning of the article is shown on the side. On the left side of the website, links give you information about international news, local news or polls. Africatime is frequently read on internet because it was named “Best of the web”: “Thanks to you, Africatime was named "Best of the web" by Best of Web's Magazine.” In addition, it is mentioned that Africatime made a headline of Le Monde. This shows that this news source is legitimate and gives reliable information.
    News24 is a South African news source that seems to give daily updates about events all around the world. In opposition with Africatime, News24 can have an objective point of view on events that do not happen in South Africa. The website presentation is a lot more complicated than Africatime. White, blue and gray are the dominant colors. The website gives information about many different topics from business to lifestyle, and accumulates many writings on the homepage. The weather forecast in the upper right corner implies that it is a daily read newspaper. On the right side, pop-ups and advertisements appear. Articles are posted by, it is a group of publishers, editors and journalists who wish “to inform, entertain, educate and connect people through print, digital and ecommerce platforms. “

  14. Domitille- Conflict in Ukraine

    This week, The Ukrainian Journal and Russia Beyond the Headlines have covered different events, though both of them linked to business.

    The Ukrainian Journal talks about how separatists seized Ukrainian companies that were on their soil. They only expose the point of view of people who support their point. They try to show the severity of the separatist’s actions and the serious consequences that could follow. They obviously want to convince the reader to be on Ukraine’s side. Their other articles either praise Ukraine’s relations with the US for example with the title “US ambassador praises Ukraine government for carrying out reforms” or with pictures of the Ukrainian president with Frank-Walter Steinmeier, to show they maintain “friendly” relations with other countries. This journal also stresses the violence perpetrated against them by putting, in the red square entitled “In Focus”, titles like “Armed men take control of Donetsk stadium”. They want their reader to believe that Russia is the one who is aggressive and that they are making efforts to collaborate with other countries.

    Russia Beyond the Headlines, on the contrary, stresses its collaboration with Ukraine and wants to show that it is making efforts in keeping “friendly” relationships with the country. Their two last titles are about business collaboration: “Ukraine takes top position as importer of Russian meat and beer” and “Russia became Ukraine’s leading investor in 2016”. In this last article, Russia and Ukraine are designated as “neighbors”, emphasizing the idea of working together. A picture of money is accompanied by facts showing how Russia is the country who invested the most in Ukraine in 2017. They want to show their readers that they are making efforts to collaborate.

  15. Juliette Scholler - Taliban in Afghanistan

    On March 1st, two bombs detonated in Kabul, followed by a gunfire. The attacks were all claimed by the Taliban, and caused 16 deaths and 44 casualties (Al Jazeera). The first assault lasted for five hours, starting with a suicide bombing, then a gun fight at an Afghan police precinct in western Kabul (India Live Today). The second assault was another suicide bombing in front of the Afghan intelligence agency in eastern Kabul (India Live Today).
    Both India Live Today and Al Jazeera share a western view on the events, as they describe the events in a “victim's” point-of-view. They assume that the audience all agree that the Taliban is the enemy, and portray the event as something morally wrong, especially India Live Today. They employ the Afghan western-backed government as a reliable source and reference, quoting them at several occasions to state facts. They both use citations to also support their opinions: Al Jazeera, in their quote of Waheed Majroh about the number of casualties, includes “Unfortunately”, and India Live Today inserts an extract of the US embassy’s condemnation.
    Al Jazeera does not include at all the Taliban point-of-view, other than the line “A Taliban spokesman claimed the group inflicted heavy casualties.” Their motives or reasoning are not explained. India Live Today, on the other hand, does quickly show their motives. However, it is mainly a speculation by the Afghan president, and it is possible that it might be wrong.
    Both news sources are targeting the international “western” audience, so it is normal that they omit these details to avoid being controversial and loose audience. This especially applies to Al Jazeera, who owns an international news channel on television, because the audience is wider and the loss would be extremely harmful to the company.

  16. Billy McGovern-- Israel Palestine

    What creative techniques are used to attract my attention?

    Al Jazeera: The Aljazeera hompage is a patchwork of photos, videos and headlines that beckon to be clicked on. This makes it easy to access the most recent articles, with big categories that cover ongoing conflicts, and the “now” tab, which shows the ongoing events such as the battlle for Mosul or the French elections, gives an almost thrilling feeling of the immediate, which captivates the reader’s attention. The breaking news story is even bigger than the other articles, with a compressed caption that allows to hook the reader: for example, this evening’s main headline is “More than 200,000 displaced by Iraq’s Mosul offensive.” Without going too much in depth, the staggering number is the tool that makes the reader want to discover more. On the top right of the page, there is a picture of journalist Mahmoud Hussein, with a count of how many days he has been held by Egyptian authorities. This has been an ongoing campaign of Al Jazeera, encouraging the reader to discover more about it.

    Times of Israel: The homepage is also a cluster of photos and eye-catching headlines, meant to attract attention and interest. The top of the page shows the latest updates, a slideshow with recent images that lead to articles, so as to get the reader’s interest on a visual level. A part a few ads (for Jewish products), the page is about the same as Al jazeera, with interactive images, big titles and a live update tab to keep the reader captivated.

  17. Anna - War in Yemen

    MEMO (Middle Eastern Monitor) gives its article concerning US strikes in Yemen the title “US in second day of airstrikes on Al-Qaeda in Yemen” whereas Press TV exposes the news as: “US airstrikes in Yemen, totally illegitimate: Analyst”, which allows the reader to immediately see their subjectivity and the legitimacy of their source.

    The latter bases its entire article on a video of an interview of a British journalist, depicting the horror of the airstrikes and American blame. They simply focus on the most important points the journalist made, more or less enumerating all the facets of the US’s illogical and inhumane behavior and its impact on the Yemeni population and its unsecure future. This article is quite restrained opinion-wise, as this newspaper tends to blatantly accuse who they believe to be the culprit in a certain situation; here, they just let the interview do the work and highlight his main arguments in Houthi favor, without including many tangible recent facts.

    MEMO places, just under its relatively objective title, a picture of American troops, seeming very vigilant and alert. The article clearly aims to justify US strikes, quoting a speech from the Pentagon spokesman, Davis, stating they are doing this to recuperate vital intelligence. They then proceed to demystify the US’s involvement in gun battles, trying to shows the US behavior as relatively not violent. They also aim to show the US in a power of strength, making allusions to previously won battles against Al-Qaeda. Even though they are clearly supporting the US, they show, at the very end in a small paragraph, that the US caused also quite a number of civilian deaths.


    Press TV:

  18. Cassiopeia, Libya





    Both sources offer good coverage of the conflict: they have in between 4-6 stories a day. Both claim to be as objective and frequently quote officials and use “claimed”. However, LH says “LNA loses control of Ras Lanuf” as a title whereas LO says “BDB capture Ras Lanuf”. This already slightly shows their positions. LH’s photo that goes along with the headline is a picture of the bay whereas LO’s is a picture of a BDB soldier making a peace sign and later on in the article they put satellite pictures of the bay and LH of a captured helicopter in the back ground and a car and two unimpressive men of which the BDB’s commander and another important official. This last one is describes as a “Hardliner Islamist” which I don’t see as a compliment but some might. The LO’s photo reinforces their stance on the LNA (against it, mentioned in the last post). The LO’s article is rather concise. It stresses the fact that the BDB did this to “facilitate [their] return to Benghazi” and to “help the city’s IDP’s”. LO calls this attack a “fresh military operation” or a “surprise attack” which are rather positive terms. LO also mentions that demonstrations were held in Tripoli and Misrata to back this attack. LO also says that the LNA’s airstrikes were “useless” which is not good depiction of the LNA, but the LH says “despite the bombing, the BDB” “were said to have continued advancing”. LH’s article is a lot longer and says they lost “past of the oil terminal town” and the control of a few other locations, namely the hospital. LH also says that the LNA “accuses the BDB of murdering an LNA officer ” taken to the hospital. The LH article also mentions the recapturing of the airport hours later which the LO omitted. The LO has no story of the LNA recapturing Ras Lanuf, only a piece about mixed reactions to the situation, whereas LO does. LH clearly mentions the negative impact on oil which could interest foreign investors reading the LH. LH mentions that Turkey and Qatar are suspected to have given material aid to the militants. LH also mentions because of the attack clashes popped up in Benghazi.

  19. Paul ISIS in Iraq,

    Throughout this week,both Al Jazeera and Iraqi News have reported on Iraq’s interventions in Mosul. However they both wrote an article concerning people fleeing the city due to heavy shelling and gas threats (this, contrasting with the articles ,written two weeks ago, on people returning to Mosul). Al-Jazeera’s article is entitled “Report: More than 200,000 displaced my Mosul conflict” whereas’s headline is “45,000 fled western Mosul battles since start of operations: IOM”.

    Iraqinews’s article written( at first sight: very short,concise and straightforward) by Mohamed Mostefa, seems to be rather neutral about it as he doesn’t explicitly expresses an opinion. He is basically just stating facts and quoting officials (such as: United Nations, a spokesperson of the Iraqi government) trying to be as neutral as possible. The use of words like “according to”, “states”, “said” means that he isn’t taking a side and that he isn’t adding anything else to the facts. Furthermore the language used is extremely basic and concise in order to target a wider audience (kids, teenagers and adults). Concerning the layout, there is one main picture showing an Iraqi man carrying a box to a refugee camp on top and there are advertisements on the sides of the article.

    On the other hand, Al-Jazeera’s article written by an anonymous news reporter over there seems to be much more detailed as visually it’s longer and includes a video. It’s title is meant to be clear and shocking to attract people’s attention (as 200,000 people appears to be a big deal). The article is divided in sections: the first one basically stating facts about people fleeing, the second one is an update of the battle for Mosul and the third one is made to keep hope (as it is entitled “a decisive battle”, therefore inferring that the end is near).The author seems to be emphasizing on the conditions of people still living there as they live under a “cloud of smoke” (referring to heavy shelling, and gas dangers) rather than the ones who have already fled .Moreover, the screen display is extremely similar to’s one. However, this website has a “read out loud article” function and a video, meaning that anyone can access this information, thus attracting a larger audience.

  20. Emilie Shagrin: refugee crisis in the EU

    Nikolaj Nielsen wrote their EU observer Migration article “EU wants rejected migrants, including minors, locked up” on the 2nd of March. The top image of the article is a picture of Avramopoulos, the European Commissioner for migration. The article itself says that the Commission is “piling on pressure” from EU governments, in order to send unwanted migrants “packing.” Based on these used words, it sounds like the author is being judgmental, and perhaps not agreeing with this decision. According to Nielsen, not everyone seemed convinced by this new detention regime, as minors are included and international laws may be violated. Based on the information given, one can conclude that the author is in fact not satisfied by the actions the Commission wants. (EU Observer Migration)
    Meanwhile, The Guardian author Daniel Boffey wrote (via Immigration Concern) on the same date that “European countries have carried out 8% of promised refugee relocations.” In the article, the European Commission quotes that there cannot be “[any] more excuses” about resettling, in the case of some countries’ decisions. The refugees mentioned were supposed to be moved from bad condition camps in Italy and Greece. The author here is also stating their opinion based on their choice of words: not enough is being done to help the migrants. It is, however, interesting to think about what the EU Commission is implying with these two different articles: they want order, and promises to be kept. Jail for some may be a part of that, however, much to some people's’ disagreeance. (Immigration Concern)

  21. Ambre Perron - Civil War In South Sudan

    How might different people understand this message differently than me?
    Earlier last week, the United Nations and the South Sudanese government announced the outbreak of famine in certain parts of South Sudan. The Sudan Tribune chose to portray the conflict with UN envoy as a savior. David Shearer is pictured smiling with the joint text addressing the situation. Surely, Shearer will bring the right resources to feed the nation back to health. Yet the presentation of the text with direct quotes from the head of the United Mission in South Sudan can bring about a pejorative connotation. One may interpret the article as the Europeans and Americans attempting to rescue the Africans. Yet history has turned this recurrent situation into an uncomfortable one. Perhaps the white male will not be appreciated by the South Sudanese as he takes center stage in their country. Of course, the majority will see the positive side of foreign donations but the potentially vexatious aspect of it remains. Easily, Sudan Tribune could have replaced this photograph with one of starving civilians however their choice is surprising, almost as if attempting to hide the concrete truth. Meanwhile, Radio Tamazuj remains neutral, only reporting the numbers affected and their locations. The choice of report only strengthens hypothesis of the potentially targeted audience: a more foreign and international one for Sudan Tribune and a regional, authentically South Sudanese audience targeted by Radio Tamazuj.

  22. Leah Sadoff- Al- Shabaab

    Garowe Online “is the sister publication of Radio Garowe”. They are based in Garowe, which is the capital of Puntland. In this case their location is extremely useful because they are right next to Somalia which means that they can get news fast and deliver it to the public quickly as well. They have their site in both English and Somali so that a wide range of people can read it. They do say that their news is not always completely accurate but we can gather that the people who read this are trying to get general information on what is going on in Somalia, which it does. I looked and I could not find how they were funding this. But my guess is that they are funding themselves, they have the radio part to help them out as well, and there are adds so they might get some funding from that.
    All Africa does not only write about Somalia but it also writes about everything that is happening in Africa. They do operate in many different countries and the closest they are to Somalia is in Nairobi, Kenya. Their site is in English and French so once again quite a large amount of people can read this news source. In this case you can create a free account on All Africa. Their funding I am guessing is coming from their many partners such as the Economist and others, and they also have adds.

  23. Olivine Silier --- Kashmir Conflict

    03/05 On the front page of Brighter Kashmir’s newspaper from the 4th of March, the Kashmiri news outlet decided to publish a small article relating the latest events at Delhi University: “New Delhi plans ‘Stringent’ sedition law for ‘Azaadi’ slogans”. Nowhere in the slogan is the reader informed of the meaning and significance of the slogan. The word ‘azaadi’ means freedom in Urdu, India’s, Pakistan’s and notably Kashmir’s main language and the slogan has been used by a number of groups to defend a number of causes in the last few years. The latest events in relation to the slogan took place in Delhi University on thursday (march third). Brighter Kashmir indicates that this issue has since taken on legal tones as the Indian government has deemed these demands for freedom as ‘treason’ that are ‘followed by violence’. These statements were all placed between brackets, distancing the article’s author from the Indian information minister’s point of view. Only the Indian government’s official point of view is represented (and discredited) and does not mention other Indian takes on the situation. The event itself is only briefly mentioned as the journalists seem to assume the reader’s prior knowledge.

    The Times of India covered the story in two articles. The first, “ ‘Azadi for Kashmir’ Poster surfaces in JNU, removed” covers the more general information in relation to the event. The Times assume far more information from the reader for Indian politics and choses to give more specific information such as the exact location of the poster, the slogan chanted ("Freedom for Kashmir! Free Palestine! Right to self-determination long live” ) and the student body responsible for the demonstration: the DSU (an ultra-left student body). The political information is even more detailed in their second article: “Ramjas issue escalates into war of words between BJP, rivals” . This article covers another part of ‘the events in Delhi Universty’ mentioned by Brighter Kashmir. Here, the focus is on the large protest marches that took place in two delhi universities and the ideological clashes that accompanied the protesters. The ‘war of words’ took place between the progressive left and the right. This article assumes an in-depth knowledge of Indian politics compared to the other two. They explain that leftist student organisations such as the DSU, supported by the Congress and Communists, were protesting against what they felt were oppressive measures (not specified) and restriction of the freedom of ideologies by the right wing party (the major BJP and smaller RSS) and their student organisation, the ABVP. On the other hand, the right-wing information minister accuses the leftists of being anti-nationalist and ‘soft on terrorists’. Despite the length and complexity of the article, it contains few hard facts and simply gives a detailed picture of the troubled political landscape in India.

  24. Juliette Debray - Boko Haram
    Something unusual has happened this week for Daily Trust; the news site has only published four stories relative to Boko Haram. This greatly varies from Daily Trust’s usual frequency : in the last blog post, we stated that it had issued 30 posts in two weeks. Furthermore, it has transitioned to better developed and more “humanitarian” stories such as “ ‘How B/Haram killed my father, brother, uncle in my presence’ ” and “B/Haram: Diplomatic betrayal and politics”. This sudden change is quite inexplicable, and furthermore confusing seeing as the Nigerian site has not reported the attempted Boko Haram attacks in Chibok or the Nigerian troops’ killing of 18 Boko Haram insurgents. This is very unusual for Daily Trust because, as stated in previous blog posts, it generally is very up to date about any military movement from Boko Haram or towards the group.
    Ironically, the major constant here is the stories’ uneven writing: from simple and concise in straightforward reports to better thought out in argumentative pieces such as the ones previously stated.
    The Guardian on the other hand, follows the same frequency of updates (2 in 2 weeks) and sticks to its “Millenium Development Goals”. One story’s headline states “How Nigerians took Boko Haram’s victims to their hearts”, the choice of word “heart” is very significant as it is not only their home they are offering according to The Guardian but their “heart”, their compassion. Even Daily Trust’s humanitarian and “people” story “ ‘How B/Haram killed my father, brother, uncle in my presence’ ” looks quite rough in comparison.

  25. Tim d’Aboville—Civil War in Syria

    This week, Aljazeera and Sputnik News have both reported on the fight against ISIL in Syria however, they haven’t given the same report about it. Aljazeera’s article, SDF forces 'cut key road' out of ISIL-held Raqqa is based on facts concerning the evolution of the conflict in Raqqa, ISIL’s most important city in Syria whereas Sputnik News dedicated an article to a fallen Russian soldier in Palmyra. Given that the civil war has slowly become a fight against the terrorist organization, actual reports of the conflict between the Syrian Government and the Rebels are not found on these sources anymore.

    Aljazeera’s article shows how the SDF (Syrian Democratic Forces) has begun its plan to retake Raqqa which would be a turning point in the quest to eliminating ISIL in Syria. The language used is of a level that is expected from such a widespread news outlet and the information that is spread doesn’t offer much interpretation as it is very factual.
    On the other hand, Sputnik’s article’s title is in some manner deceiving. It does of course speak of Artem Gorbunov who died in Palmyra however, after three paragraphs, the author writes about a completely different victim who died last year in an “act of heroism”. Though poignant, it isn’t exactly that of which the reader would ask from an article supposed to cover the 2017 news. It seems that Sputnik are attempting to prove the valor of the Russian men in Syria rather than tell us what is happening there.

  26. Emma Ghafari – Conflict in Ukraine
    It is important to examine the distribution and international variants as well as the use of advertisement in both TASS (a Russian news outlet) and Ukrinform (a Ukrainian news outlet).
    In January 2017, as measured by Similar Web, Ukrinform had 30,000 page views whereas TASS achieved 760,000 in the same month. TASS clearly has more influence than Ukrinform and their articles have more impact due to its popularity. Again according to Similar Web, the majority of Ukrinform’s viewers come from Argentina (unexpectedly), Argentina’s viewers making up for 33.84% of the website’s total views. Following Argentina is Croatia (15.61%), the United States, Switzerland and Ukraine, coming fifth. For TASS, the majority of their views come from the United States (22.82% of total views) followed by the United Kingdom (8.49%), Germany, Canada and then Australia. TASS clearly attracts a more English-speaking audience whereas Ukrinform attracts more European readers. Therefore TASS has a more outstretched audience. It is interesting to note that Russia does not make the top five for the most views internationally, despite the outlet being a Russian one.
    Both outlets make use of advertisements. However, on one of its pages, TASS only has one relatively small one while Ukrinform, on one of its pages, has two, one of which takes up a rather large amount of room. One can therefore infer that TASS is not in need of as much funding as Ukrinform, which makes sense knowing that TASS receives far more views per month than the former.

    P.S. – I am very sorry for the late post; I forgot to post it!

  27. Juliette Scholler -Taliban in Afghanistan

    A week ago, a member of the chinese communist party Dr. Ma Xiangwu declared that 320 Chinese were recruited into a taliban camp (India Live Today). He then asks the UN’s anti-terrorism program to strengthen and fight any form of terrorism and not only the ones that are officially recognized as such (India Live Today).
    India Live Today, despite naming their article “320 Chinese being trained in Taliban camps, says Communist Party of China official”, only covers on that event for half of the article. The other half is concentrated on the relation between India and China and on the issue with India Nuclear Suppliers’ Group. India Live Today assumes that the readers follow what had happened previously with INSG, and what Jaish-e-Mohammad is, and directly comments on how they both affect relations. Their article is surrounded by clickbaits and ads, with only a small section where some of their other articles are displayed. However, these articles have little to no link with the topic of the article, and are about popular events in India. They also have a comment section below a few rows of ads, but it remains empty, like most times. Below their website header, they have links to the divisions of their articles. They cover almost equal amount of entertainment as politics/business/current events. They have a division consecrated to India, which is where they are based, but also one named “women”, where they post articles about different events involving women.
    Al Jazeera did not cover this news at all. The main focus of the previous article being more about the relations between India and China, it did not fit inside what Al Jazeera usually reports on. Al Jazeera, differently from India Live Today, is devoid of ads and has a very clean and ordered layout. Their articles are mainly on current events, and rarely on entertainment. On the top right corner, there is a button that gives access to the Al Jazeera TV channel, which is where Al Jazeera Media Network’s main news outlet is.

  28. This comment has been removed by the author.


  29. Iraqi News

    IraqiNews is an Iraquian News source that writes its articles in english. Most of the news traced on the site are about the war going on against the islamist state. The first image once on their site takes up most of the space with a “Latest Story” sign, taking the attention of the reader and making him or he most likely to press on the story. On the right, a column with the most read stories in the past 24 hours classifying them from most to less important in the process. As we go down the page, there is a list of articles, each one of them decorated by an image of what the article is about, giving the reader an insight about the content of the writing piece. We can also tell that the source does not have a lot of funding as there are a lot of publicities on the site.

    TOI: Israel denies work visa to official from ‘fundamentally biased’ Human Rights Watch
    Maan: Israel-Palestine director of Human Rights Watch denied work permit by Israel

    While TOI characterizes the official as “fundamentally biased”, “Israel-Palestine,” suggests that Maan deems him impartial. It might be unexpected to find a critique of Israel in TOI such as “ban shows Israel now like North Korea, Iran” but this is actually what the HRW official said after being described as someone who “campaigned against Israel, and led BDS efforts.” This description discredits him completely, and therefore no TOI reader would even consider his critique of Israel. A TOI reader would probably think that Iran is one of Israel’s worst enemy anyways, so Israel can’t be similar to Iran. He would also think that BDS’ actions are anti-semite, and so that this HRW official’s visa refusal is justified.
    Maan, on the other hand, mentions the concerns people should have about “Israel’s commitment to basic democratic values,” which is criticism towards the visa refusal. They also give more importance to the HRW person by calling him “director of international NGO Human Rights Watch” as opposed to “official” highlighting how unfit it is to deny someone so worthy a working visa.
    The illustrations in TOI show a YouTube screenshot of the official speaking. This makes it look like the HRW is a little organization that just does live videos on YouTube, a laid back social media platform. Maan presents the logo of the NGO as proof of how official they are.

  31. The New York Times’ articles look very clean. The newspaper has opted for Georgia in its online version. According to the newspaper, it has decided to replace Times New Roman with Georgia as it is easier to read. The font is slightly wider which demands less strain to read. The web page also has a unique feature .A double click will make the font bigger with three different sizes to choose from. The web page is very minimalistic, black and white being the dominant colors. Between paragraphs are located some ads from time to time which also appear at the right of the article. The sudden burst of color these ads produce breaks the visual minimalistic effect produced by the black lettering on a white page. On top of the page there is a bar showing recent articles covering events in the area which the article being read covers. There is usually one photograph in the entire article located underneath the title before the first paragraph of the article. At the end of the article are presented the same articles that are shown on the bar towards the top of the screen. Generally, the layout is clean is very clean and the minimalistic presentation makes the articles comfortable to read.
    The South China Morning Post takes a different approach. The online articles have opted for the less harsh and easy to read Arial font. This font is softer on the contours, thicker but gives off a less clean look. The web page also appears more clustered. There are more ads which appear on both sides of the articles alongside suggestions for other articles. The bar presenting the different sections of the web page stays on the top of the page even after scrolling down. Unlike the New York Times, SCMP’s dominant color in the articles is a dark turquoise blue. Article suggestions are also on a beige background which makes the site more colorful and the vibrant colors of the ads not out of place. The article text spreads out more across the web page compared to the NYT whose articles are more compact. However, there is no way to increase the font size. Like the NYT, SCMP only generally has one photograph per article located underneath the title before the beginning of the first paragraph of the article. The layout of SCMP is less clean, more clustered and less appealing to the eye in terms of aesthetics. However, it is more comfortable to read due to the Arial font.