Saturday, January 28, 2017

Phase 3, week 2

So, a recap of what you're doing in this phase:

Check the two sources you've chosen for coverage of the conflict.
Best-case scenario, you find the same topic/story covered in both your papers; in that case, compare how things are presented.
Worst-case scenario; neither of your sources covers your conflict this week; in that case, work on comparing your sources in terms of layout, presentation, audience, etc.

Among other things, you can:
a) try to find out the readership of each source (there are places online that track the page-views of news outlets);
b) look into any "about us" tabs on the site;
c) see what you can find out about the source from elsewhere online.

Remember; these are supposed to be relatively short; don't go over 250 words (not counting name-and-conflict or the hyperlinks, of course)!



  1. Sophie Lemmerman -- Kashmir conflict

    According to the Times of India, “Pakistan on Thursday asked the world community to hold India ‘accountable’ for its ‘crimes against humanity’ in Kashmir, as it demanded justice for the families of 25 Kashmiris allegedly killed by Indian security in 1990.” Pakistani Foreign Office spokesman Nafees Zakaria reminded the population of Pakistan on January 25 that Indian security forces allegedly “massacred more than 25 innocent defenceless Kashmiris” in Handwara 27 years ago (Times of India). Zakaria continued to portray India as the enemy, stating that the “ ‘horrific massacre was committed by the Indian forces’ just three days after they had reportedly killed more than 50 Kashmiris in Gawkadal” (Times of India). He then called for the rest of the world to get involved, concluding that the “International Community must act to hold India accountable for their crimes against humanity” (Times of India).
    According to the Daily Pakistan, the Pakistani Prime Minister’s Special Assistant on Foreign Affairs Tariq Fatemi promised that Nawaz Sharif (PM) would highlight the longstanding Kashmir issue in the upcoming World Economic Forum (WEF). “Fatemi termed Kashmir a ‘flashpoint,’ which he said could turn into a very serious situation” (Daily Pakistan). Furthermore, he went on to blame India for the tension within Kashmir: “[Fatemi] said the prime minister would categorically inform the UN secretary general that India was responsible for the tension in the region” (Daily Pakistan). He spoke of India’s “belligerent” attitude, and said that he regretted the “ethnic cleansing and genocide” of Kashmiris by Indian paramilitary forces (Daily Pakistan).

    Times of India

    Daily Pakistan

  2. Taliban in Afghanistan -Theodore FEVRE

    In an article posted by Aljazeera on the 25th of January, the news article indirectly provokes the US on the history of their military intervention in Afghanistan. They quote the Taliban's letter by stating that for the past fifteen years nothing had been achieved except for "bloodshed and destruction". Furthermore, they gave information on how much money the US spent on the war, "a trillion dollars". As a result, the Taliban see these expenses as a loss of credibility from the US, because of the excessive amount they spent on a "fruitless entanglement". Finally, the article quotes the Taliban on their accusations of the US's irrationality. As the article states, the US want to end the war in Afghanistan. However, the Taliban explicitly told the afghan government that they would not proceed to peace talks until every foreign troop leaves the country. Therefore, by sending more troops into the country, the US are not ending the war, they are just angering the Taliban.

    In conclusion, the article implicitly attacks the US by revealing their irrationality and excessive expenses on the war in Afghanistan.

    On the other hand, four days after the event, CNN have still not published an article on the Taliban letters addressed to Donald Trump and probably will not.
    Because of their important influence in the US, CNN have to carefully choose which story to publish and which to ignore. In this instance CNN have chosen to ignore the letter to Trump, because publishing it could be self-harming. If the Taliban's accusations were published by CNN, they would deliberately expose the US's belittlement by the Taliban. Adding on, the Taliban's arguments might even persuade the US people to turn against their own government and protest to end the war in Afghanistan because of its inefficiency.
    The only american news organisation which did cover this story were Business Insider and KSL. Yet all the articles do is mock the Taliban, "In a long rambling letter", "written on behalf of the so-called Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan". In addition they do not quote the article, only paraphrase and lack any concrete information on the matter.

    In conclusion, certain news organisations -especially if there are well known- closely evaluate the consequences of publishing an article. In this instance, contrarily to Aljazeera, CNN decided to not report on the Taliban's accusations of the US's military embarrassment, in order to avoid humiliating itself and having the US population convinced by the Taliban.

  3. Domitille- Conflict in Ukraine

    “Russia Beyond the Headlines” was launched by Rossiyskaya Gazeta and, though it is international, mostly shows the Russian point of view.
    “The Ukrainian Journal” is led mostly by English reporters, is therefore even more international and presents the more “European” view of the conflict.

    This week, “Russia Beyond the Headlines” front page shows a huge picture representing Putin on the phone with a very formal expression and the title “5 hot topics for tomorrow’s historic Putin-Trump phone call”. In the article itself, they list all the different issues Russia and the US will likely agree on; for example the situation in Ukraine. They also use images, with captions like “What would Russian American cooperation in Syria look like?”. They want the readers to feel like Russia is on very friendly terms with the United States and a real cooperation is starting.

    Contrasting with this is the Ukrainian Journal’s news. The information that stands out the most is the one in a red box under the title “In Focus”. In the article, they use optimistic quotes from Poroshenko, adding that he has planned a visit to meet Trump a few months from now. The picture on their homepage shows Poroshenko alongside President of Finland Sauli Niinistö. Its goal is also to emphasize the idea of cooperation.

    Therefore, it wants Ukrainians to believe Ukraine succesfully cooperating with the U.S and other European countries, while “Russia Beyond the Headlines” is showing the opposite.
    Each country is presenting their own interests a being the right ones.

  4. David Ripayre - Uyhgur conflict in China

    Not much has happened recently in the Xinjiang region so I will be looking at how my different news outlet see Chinese international relations.
    The pro-Uyghur news source UyghurAmerican headline clearly state violent autoritarian relationships as the headline clearly states « Tsai gov’t risks China wrath over Uighur activist’s visa ». Taiwan has invited Rubiya Kadeer a Uyghur activist to visit the country. But they clearly risk
    chinese wrath as this woman was exiled from China. They use the word « seen » and not « is » when talking about chinese point of vue to accuse them of insisting on their personal point of vue and imposing it on others. They also bring up « Chinese oppresion ». She trys to unite the repressed regions saying that Tibet, Taiwan or east turkestan all face the same chinese oppresion ».
    On the other hand Chinese news Xinhua, founded by the Chinese communist party, insists on the international chinese culture. The headline « Chinese spring festival celebrations thrill Rwandans », first of all they suppose the Rwandan feedback with the worsd « thrilled ». They start with a rallying phrase « Hundreds of Rawandans gathered », an d they speak of them as friends and equals : « the chinese were joined by their friends », and finally they also insist on the solidarity of chinese as Kung-fu « symbolizes their passion for protection of their people.

  5. Delphine Chiffaudel - Israel and Palestine

    Arrests raids took place in the various cities of the West Bank on January 26th. This is how Times of Israel and Maan respectively reported it:
    IDF soldier wounded in Jenin during arrest raid - TOI
    Israeli forces detain 15 Palestinians during West Bank, East Jerusalem raids - Maan

    TOI focuses on portraying an IDF soldier as a victim of Palestinian violence rather than the actual arrest raid itself. The lead of the article, what the most people read, makes the Palestinians guilty: “Residents fire shots, throw pipe bombs at army troops” and shines a positive light on IDF soldiers: “suspected gunsmithing workshop shuttered in Hebron.” This reveals their political agenda in the conflict: pro-israeli. The article ends with an accusation to the Palestinians that “attacks have been a fixture of a swell of deadly violence in Israel and the West Bank over the past 18 months.”

    Maan, on the other hand, focuses on denouncing the raid. They make sure to report how many Palestinians were victims of raiding. They only talk about the wounded soldier towards the end of the article, one of the least read places. Instead of simply stating that several Palestinians in the refugee camp had thrown explosive devices at Israeli forces, Maan discredits it by adding “according to the Israeli army.” They assume the reader doesn’t trust Israel. They also made sure to specify that the soldier was “lightly injured” and that he got hospital treatment, something Palestinians do not get. It minimizes the situation. The article ends with an accusation to the Israelis that “7,000 Palestinians were detained in Israeli prisons as of October 2016.”

  6. Elise du Crest- War in Yemen

    In recent news, UAE Air Force destroyed an Iranian-built drone in Yemen, and Saudi-backed Yemeni government forces seized the Red Sea port of Mokha. Both The National and Gulf News covered the stories, but here’s where the news outlets differ.
    The National reported the drone story with facts. The quotes they chose to integrate in their news article tell the reader only what’s undeniable, like how the drone had been “smuggled in by the rebels from Iran, after government troops trapped them on the coast.” Short and to the point, The National explains how it happened, but doesn’t linger on the victory in itself. The article doesn’t include a photo, and the headline, much like the rest, is concise. It features quotes from Yemeni military officers, such as Gen Al Yafei, but also focuses on information from rebel medical sources, who have reported 19 rebel deaths and 23 wounded since Friday. The front picture on the homepage is one of a soldier walking away from what seems to be a big explosion. The story related to it is that of the liberation of Mokha, but again, pays much more attention to the consequences of the event than the actual victory. The news outlet features an entire article on how “Yemen’s Red Sea ports could be key to ending conflict with Houthis”, instead of simply reporting that they had finally won the battle.
    Simply in their choice of words, Gulf News shows their alliance to the coalition. Their headline for the drone story uses the expression “helps destroy”, implying that the event was a positive one. Unlike The National, this news outlet features a whole video of the drone being destroyed, with suspenseful music to entice the viewer. Also, their article basically relies on a single source, General Ahmad Saif Al Yafei. They use pejorative expressions such as “blatant Iranian interference” and “threaten peace in Yemen”, that show where their loyalties lie. The top story on their homepage is the liberation of Mokha, and features a photo of Yemeni soldiers smiling on the back of a truck, giving the public a positive image of the battle. At no point do they discuss the casualties, as they do in The National.

  7. News outlets use numerous pictures in order to illustrate an article. These illustrations play a crucial role in explaining the article and also portraying the author’s opinion.

    When it comes to the North Korean conflict, there is a stark contrast between both sides. The BBC uses pictures of North Korean refugees living a prosperous life in the US or in South Korea. For example the cover picture of the article "Fighting for survival on the streets of North Korea" (Jolly, Joanna. "Fighting for Survival on the Streets of North Korea." BBC News. BBC, 09 Jan. 2017. Web. 22 Jan. 2017.) shows a North Korean man smiling with a microphone in his hands. This picture shows the reader how escaping the DPRK made this man’s life more prosperous. Moreover, the microphone proves to the reader that this man now possesses the freedom of speech and finally feels safe.
    There are as well a multitude of pictures of weapons and military parades which in a way scares the reader who assimilates North Korea to a nuclear threat. For instance, Evan Peters chose a picture of a nuclear bomb exploding in order to show how violent North Korea is (Evans, Stephen. "Can North Korea's Nuclear Expansion Be Stopped?" BBC News. BBC, 10 Jan. 2017. Web. 22 Jan. 2017.).

    On the other side, KCNA uses the exact same scheme. Several of the articles include pictures of smiling citizens living a happy life. This is clearly propaganda used in order to make North Koreans feel like their country is successful and their hard work isn’t pointless. In the periodical titled “Kumsugangsan”, two smiling women are talking a man in a rather colourful and fun setting. This shows how living in North Korea isn’t a nightmare but actually enjoyable.
    When it comes to military articles KCNA uses the same ones the BBC uses. These oppressive picture have as goal to reassure the population. It shows how strong and ready to fight the country is. North Korea therefore seems to be a safe and independent country. The news paper "Rodong Sinmun" of January 28, 2017 shows a picture of Kim Jong Un and three officers looking at the horizon in a fierce and aggressive manner.

    In conclusion, even though both news outlets are far from sharing the same opinion, it is clear that they use the same techniques in order to capture the reader’s attention and effectively portray their message. Pictures allow for both a fast comprehension of the article and an impactful way to portray an opinion.

  8. Rémi Masia-Depardieu, Destabilization of Mali
    Mali Actu’s readers are mostly Southern Malians, and therefore the news outlet exposes the information to meet and emphasize on the common opinion its readers. The articles in relation with the Malian conflict reflect a pro-governmental opinion. This can allow ave more daily readers. In addition the news outlet is exclusively in French, which suggests it seeks readers only among francophones, so French people, and people from ancient French colonies. The media also often quotes in their articles ministers and peacekeepers, valorizing their opinion, promoting it among their readers. Reuters however, writes its articles in English, which are mostly directed towards an American public or anglophone Africans. As the United States don’t have much involvement in the Malian Conflict since 2013, and the articles on the Malian conflict is unbiased and reflect many opinions, including which of the government, the jihadists, the UN, or other countries occasionally. They focus on fast information transmission, and in consequences often publish updates, usually concerning death tolls, or new information upon an event. The unbiased and fast reporting qualities of the media allows them to have a public who trusts the information contained in the articles.

  9. North Korea, kelcie bons
    An audience report on the news outlet CNN has identified that this news outlet is for college educated people who prefer their news to be neutral. It also points out that the audience will usually be constituted of democratic people. (
    CNN's coverage of North Korea mainly focuses on US/North Korea relations and North Korea's nuclear program. While on the other hand, NK News talks about a wider range of things concerning North Korea (political, millitary, social and cultural development in the country). For example one article is simply about North Korean football ( This news source differs from others as it only covers North Korea, it characterizes itself by its "specialist long-term knowledge of the country". A lot of their content is analysis on the news from different people (like experts on the subject, North Koreans,defectors).

  10. Marin Duroyon - Libyan Civil War

    Arab News’s header is “Egypt working for Libya political solution, says FM”, and the article informs the reader that the Egyptian Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry said “A political solution is the only way to resolve the crisis in Libya.” Furthermore, the article also describes that the EU might help Libyan coast guards to reduce the amount of migrants smuggling out towards Europe.
    Arab News is using many quotes to prove their point, and paraphrase the Foreign Minister as a header. In this article Arab News is using facts that can be verified, however in the header they say that Egypt is working for Libya political solution but the only quote there is by the FM is a possible solution for the Civil War. It is not said whether they are working on it or not. All the sentences have a big font, are returned to the line and separated, making it very clear and straightforward.
    In The Libya Observer, there wasn’t any information about the quote of the Egyptian Foreign Minister, however most articles are written in a smaller font and longer sentences. The header is written in very big which can be explained because The Libya Observer tweets about their articles. This could forces them to be able to write a captivating sentence.

  11. Marc de Laportalière - Tensions in the East China Sea
    Since there have been no evolutions in the three-way- tensions between Japan, China and Taiwan, I have chosen to focus on the state of Japan-American relations, after President Donald Trump’s inauguration. Both articles were written after the inauguration, and they represent well both news sources’ view.
    The article from the Japan times demonstrates a feeling of positivity in the future of both countries’ relations, at the title: “Abe, Trump agree to hold summit on Feb. 10”. This notion of agreeing is very important and can be found multiple times in the following text. Also, it relies on a series of quotes which start early on ( second and third paragraphs). This factual approach continues during the entirety of the article, with multiple mentions of agreements and military budgets. Simultaneously, the writer nuances his view, with the criticism by President Trump of the unfairness of Japanese methods in the automobile industry. Finally, this article is headed by a very large image, which takes the entire screen, as in every other article in the Japan Times.
    The Diplomat takes a different approach to the problem, using a more unilateral negative perspective. The article takes an anti-Trump position, by criticizing his methods, implying that he is a “madman”, and comparing his plans to Richard Nixon’s 1970 “Nixon shocks”. The article is also much longer than its Japan Times counterpart, and instead of keeping to facts, it makes predictions directly, instead of implying them. Its paragraphs are much longer and it is headed by a much smaller picture.

    Kyodo. “Abe, Trump agree to hold summit on Feb. 10”. The Japan Times, Google, 29 January 2017. 29 January 2017.

    Le, Tom and Midford, Paul. “Why Japan should get ready for “Trump Shocks””. The Diplomat, James Pach, 25 January 2017. 29 January 2017

  12. Chloé Erny, EU migration crisis

    - Alex Culbertson on the Sunday Express reports a renewed threat from Turkey to cancel the EU-Turkey migration deal: President Erdogan demands the extradition of eight Turkish soldiers who fled to Greece, accused of being significantly involved in last July’s failed coup. The headline is “Turkey threatens to CANCEL EU migrant deal over Greece extradition row” and the article aims at making the situation appear scandalous, already by qualifying it as a “row”. It implicitly sides against Turkey: twice they mention that the soldiers fear for their lives in Turkey, it specifies that “in return for taking the migrants back, (...) Turkey is meant to get a sizeable lump of cash from the bloc”, and shows pictures of migrants rescued in Greece when explaining that cancelling the deal “means Ankara has to take back migrants who have made their way from the country to Greece” (without mentioning that the deal already consists of sending migrants back from Greece). It ends on a note of suspense, by highlighting the tension between Greece and Turkey while adding that they “play an important role in the handling of Europe's worst migration crisis in decades”.
    - Nikolaj Nielsen in EU Observer describes how deals in Africa are evolving, in the article “No Turkey-type migrant deal with Libya, says EU commission.” It first explains that the project of replicating an EU-Turkey deal for Libya, suggested by the Maltese presidency a few months before, would fall short according to the EU Commission because of logistical reasons: Libya is too unstable. The article then branches off as usual to broader subjects; it describes the progress (or lack thereof) of cooperation with the five African states affected by the “money-for-migration” deals and the resentment within them caused by the French idea of a “laissez-passer” which would allow to immediately return unwanted migrants. The article sticks to bare facts and citations, and does not appear to express an opinion or even to make a point, only to be strictly informative on subjects related to the headline.

    Alex Culbertson

    Nikolaj Nielsen

  13. Julie Clar - Boko Haram in Nigeria

    This week, the Boko Haram conflict in Nigeria was not covered by Aljazeera. However, according to The Guardian, a lot happened: the terrorist group raided a village and killed three civilians in Borno State, Zurmi Emirate Council in Zamfara handed over three Boko Haram insurgents that have been taken into custody, and the Defence Headquarters compelled soldiers to “meticulously screen pregnant women at all checkpoints in the Northeast” in response to the new tactics used by female suicide bombers to avoid getting caught. Whereas The Guardian has approximately 80000 readers, Aljazeera has over 40 million (1)(2). This difference in readership would explain why some news is not covered by Aljazeera because they choose to talk about news that will attract bigger audiences. On its website, Aljazeera explains how much it values “impartial, fact-based reporting.” which is similar to The Guardian’s motto, “Conscience, nurtured by the truth.” It appears that The Guardian has its own opinion about what is right and what is wrong. On the website, it explains its ideology. For example, it believes that “the state must intervene judiciously in the economic life of the nation” which would reveal to be not impartial if for example, it were to report an economic crisis and to what extent the state is to blame for it.

  14. Paul ISIS in Iraq,

    This week, the main event that happened in Iraq was the destruction of ISIS’s headquarters in Mosul.

    Unfortunately, only one out of my two sources has reported on that event, which is They basically just stated the facts, saying that iraqi forces have led airstrikes against ISIS’s headquarters. They’ve succeeded in their mission, destroying the main building however it appears to that they’ve also caused additional damage in the neighborhood. Their Headquarters were situated in western Mosul.

    Since, Al-Jazeera has not covered this event, I will focus on the source itself. In January 2001, was launched and it soon became a hit with essentially an Arab audience. The website turned out to be very reliable and after becoming extremely popular within Arab countries but wanted to be a more international people viewed by a cosmopolitan audience. That is why in 2003, an english version of the website was made visible on the internet. They strive to cover mostly hard hitting topics and heated debates whilst trying to stay objective. Today, this source can be considered as extremely reliable and has leveled up with all of the news outlets such as CNN, BBC,... However the audience remains essentially Arabic as it’s the website which is the most frequently visited every day in the Arab world. Advertisements are also included in the website; and are connected to your latest researches.

  15. Deniz-Turkish conflict

    The Turkish AKP political party has put forth a constitutional reform package that would effectively grant large amounts of power to the executive branch of government, turning the current parliamentary system into a presidential one. Both ARA News and CNN have covered the rising tensions in Turkey due to the reform. The ARA News headline is “Council of Europe worried about democracy in Turkey as Erdogan seeks unlimited power”, while the CNN headline is “What happens if Turkey passes Erdogan's power bill”? The ARA News headline is clearly more pessimistic about the reform, with the wording: “seeks unlimited power”. The ARA News article also starts off talking about Turkey’s “disproportionate response” to the failed coup attempt of 15 July 2016. The article focuses on the important issues presented by the proposition of this reform, and is filled with quotes from the PACE, expressing concerns about the future of the country. The CNN article is a lot more careful in its phrasing, and focuses on the tensions and brawling going on in parliament because of the brawl, but does not address the backward state of the country that brought the AKP in a position to propose this reform.
    In conclusion, ARA News is a lot more concerned about putting the current Turkish government in as bad a light as possible, while CNN covers the parliamentary action but doesn't reveal much about the public situation.

  16. Tim d’Aboville—Syrian Civil War
    After the meeting that took place in Astana last week, it seems undeniable that the end of the war has never been closer. According to Sputnik International, Russia has “proposed a draft constitution for Syria” based on what Moscow heard from “the government, the opposition, and from the countries of the region.” Sputnik being a Russian news outlet, it isn’t very surprising to read that Russia appears as the savior that descended from heaven saving “hundreds of thousands of Syrian lives” thanks to their recent ceasefire. However, Aljazeera, a more local news outlet, presents Russia as the key player in the current affairs concerning Syria, but not necessarily in a very pleasant manner. They explain that Russia has used the US, the UN, and now Turkey in some sort of “knockout game” to manage to sit in the position they are in now in Syria. So, if Russia appears the savior of a difficult situation in Syria, her way of getting there might not be as glorious as it seems.

  17. Emma Ghafari – Ukraine conflict
    TASS – a Russian news outlet portraying Russia’s side of the Ukraine conflict – and Ukrinform – a Ukrainian site siding Ukraine in the crisis – did not cover the same story this week. It would therefore be relevant to examine the way in which each outlet approached the crisis in Ukraine this week, by analyzing different articles on the subject from each outlet.
    An article on TASS worth studying would be “Politician says European-style reforms to degrade Ukraine’s economy”. The mere subject of this article is clearly biased; by publishing this article, TASS is attempting to denounce European-Ukrainian ties by convince their readers that a “European-style” reform is to the detriment of Ukraine’s economy. Denouncing European ties indirectly encourages ties with Russia. Moreover, the fact that TASS states that a “Politician says”, increases the reliability and credibility of the judgement, especially when it is later stated that it is “According to an expert”. The picture that has been used in the article is also highly significant and very wittily used. It is a photo of the Ukrainian flag tied onto the handle of a large, dark, murky car. The photo, with its dark background and the Ukrainian flag hanging downwards is a clear symbol of Ukraine’s desperate situation. This serves to reinforce the way that Ukraine is being affected (in Russia’s point of view) as a result of its strengthening ties with Europe. The article makes use of many statistics in order to prove its point and again to increase its trustworthiness. In addition, the vocabulary of deterioration is very present throughout as a way of aggravating the situation; words such as “problems” and “degradation” are used at various instances.
    A significant Ukrinform article is “PACE condemns Russia for terrorist activities in Ukraine”. Again, one can see that Ukrinform makes use of a third party to legitimize their point of view. Here, Ukrinform is attempting to convince its readers of the terroristic and violent nature of Russia and trying to further put the blame of the crisis onto Russia. The story also helps to enhance Ukraine’s image by portraying it as an innocent victim. The photo used on this article helps to strengthen their point; it is a picture of what appears to be a conference room filled with people. Portraying a crowd of people in an important setting helps to reinforce the amount of people who support the point that Russia is practicing terrorist activities in Ukraine. The article uses numerous quotes, which serves to increase its credibility. Furthermore, an actual photo of the declaration that is mentioned in the article equally helps to make it and its point far more reliable.
    TASS. "Politician Says European-style Reforms to Degrade Ukraine's Economy." TASS. TASS, 23 Jan. 2017. Web. 29 Jan. 2017. .
    Ukrinform. "PACE Condemns Russia for Terrorist Activities in Ukraine – Declaration."Ukrinform News. N.p., 27 Jan. 2017. Web. 29 Jan. 2017. .

  18. Emilie Shagrin: refugee crisis EU
    Nikolaj Nielsen’s article from the EU Observer describes how Germany is looking for reasons to maintain internal border checks. The January 27th article, titled “Germany seeks to harden EU border checks,” begins by describing that this follows an extension of three months announced earlier this week. It then quotes Germany's interior minister, explaining the reasoning behind this decision as a security motive after December’s terrorist attack (The article’s cover image is in fact a picture dating from after the attack, showing a policeman guarding the Christmas market). The author then changes general reasoning and quotes French interior minister Le Roux, who says that security is to be made a priority in European borders.
    The author does not include his personal opinion into the article, stating only facts from the European Commission as well as conference quotes.
    Harry Walker’s Sunday Express article appears to stay less opinionated. The title uses the adjective “shocking” when talking about new figures that reveal how “Germany turned away 307 national security THREATS in 2016'.” Interestingly enough, “threat is capitalised as well. The article, dating from January 29th, begins by explaining how the newfound data gives an “alarming” insight into how many “potentially dangerous “people have tried to “exploit” Germany’s borders. Facts and figures are then given, such as previous numbers of refugees accepted or rejected. A quote from the German government is given as well, mentioning order and security among other things. It is understood that the author of this news article is therefore to favor a maintain of border control, as it has been effective according to them.

  19. Lucca Stagno Al Shabaab in Somalia

    In order to better understand the way my two media outlets cover Al Shabaab and their activity in the Horn of Africa, I have decided to investigate the nature of both my sources: AllAfrica and Garowe Online.

    As their name suggests, AllAfrica are a news website that focalises on events happening on the entire African continent. The way they function is by gathering and combing through millions of news articles published by various independent news outlets in Africa and selecting the ones they deem to be more important or more interesting. They then republish, or rewrite and then publish, the articles they selected on their website which is available in both English and French (two of the most widely spoken tongues both in Africa and in the world). They publish around one thousand articles daily that are meant to cover the actualities of the entirety of Africa. They have offices all around the African continent (in Cape Town, Lagos, Nairobi and Dakar) but also in the United States (Washington D.C.).

    Despite not being an world wide news agency, AllAfrica's scope still remains fairly large with more than 50 countries to cover on a daily basis. For this reason, it is reasonable to hypothesize that this news outlet will only provide partial and superficial coverage of Al Shabaab actions in Somalia.

    On the other hand Garowe Online is a local Somali newspaper. It is named after one of Somalia's largest cities and the capital of the semi-autonomous state of Puntland in northern Somalia, where they are based as a "sister publication" of local radio station Radio Garow. Their coverage is almost exclusively dedicated to the Somali territory and its immediate neighboring countries (Kenya, Ethiopia, and Djibouti). Their website is available both in Somali and English which limits the audience (mostly Somali and Kenyan). I have personally noticed that occasionally they had English mistakes in their articles which would suggest a much smaller and local audience.

    Taking all of this into consideration, it seems logical that this new source have much more detail when they report on events happening on the Somali territory. Not only because of their geographical proximity to the events which allows them to personally interview and contact eyewitnesses and local officials, but also because their audience will be much more interested in hearing about Al Shabaab because they are directly affected by what the terrorist organization does. Also, given that they address themselves to locals who are familiar with the country, it is much more logical that they mention specific villages other than Kismayo and Mogadishu, and make reference to specific individuals that make up the local officials.

  20. Ambre Perron - Civil War In South Sudan

    Although both sources cover the conflict in the two Sudans exclusively, the outlook on the conflict and its selected events differ depending on the source. In the span of a week, a dozen new articles are posted yet only two or three events are covered by both sources. This week, both report the eruption of fighting in the Upper Nile region. As of now, both sides seem to restrict any signs of bias by interviewing both sides. However, the more international aspect of Sudan Tribune is underlined as they mention the area is an area of “oil production.” One news source must get its information from the other as the articles greatly resemble each other with the same interviews. Radio Tamazuj specifies when interviewing commanders and other witnesses: “told Radio Tamazuj” to indicate that the information was given to them directly. In the meantime, Sudan Tribune seems more detached from the population. Additionally, Sudan Tribune refers to New York UN Spokesman as opposed to the other source which depends on the testimonies of the people solely. Even the pictures chosen seem to reflect the content of the articles. The Sudan Tribune chooses an image farther from the soldiers with an overall view of the attacked field while Radio Tamazuj gives the impression that the photographer is amongst the troops with a photograph of a soldier. Both agree on the uncertainty of the testimonies given by each side therefore future other articles will have to prove any support of single side.

  21. Juliette Scholler- Taliban in Afghanistan

    Shortly after the American elections, Taliban has written an open letter directed to the new president of the United States, Donald Trump. In the letter, the insurgency discuss about the ongoing war between them, and how the war, being wasteful and fruitless, could be ended if the 8,400 remaining American troops departed from Afghanistan. Otherwise, they promise the intensification of the fighting. Trump, however has not yet shown any acknowledgement of the letter.
    Al Jazeera, differently from India Live Today, focuses mainly on the hypocrisy of the Taliban arguments. In order to do so, they quote moments of the letter where what they are saying opposes to their actions. For example they cite the part where the Taliban blames the US for relying on “unrealistic” reports, when, ironically, they too rely on reports that are not always truthful.
    India Live Today focuses more on how the fighting could last longer in Afghanistan. They then quickly develop on the reasons claimed by the Taliban on why the the US should leave. Compared to Al Jazeera, there is more of a feeling of concern and worry towards the prolonged conflict.

  22. South China Sea - Mika Desblancs

    According to Pew Research, The New York Times is a news outlet which appeals to people who want more than just news. They are, for 56% of them, college graduates who want more than just news but rather opinion and inspiring pieces. Approximately 38% of the readers are high income earners which shows mostly educated people read the New York Times. The magazine is known to be a democrat news organisation and has been highly criticized by Donald Trump.

    Not much is known on the readership of the South China Morning Post. Articles say very factual but their are many comments about presented facts throughout the articles. According to the Herald Tribune, questions have been raised about the newspaper's editorial independence and self-censorship. Their articles seem pro-China and against the United States' stance on the South China Sea.

  23. Juliette Debray - Boko Haram
    The news site The Guardian is mostly funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Under US law, this prevents the site to publish opinion pieces on political issues. Furthermore, it looks to agree with the “millennium development goals” defined by the United Nations Millennium Declarations, therefore focusing on the humanitarian aspects of current events.
    One would think The Guardian’s published articles would therefore not be dependant on viewers’ opinions but the site is regularly asking for donations.
    On the contrary, Daily Trust is funded by advertisements. Advertisement positions seem to be open to anyone, “aka” the site’s purpose is to attract the biggest public for the company’s advertisement. For example, Daily Trust even states “Our website can be used to target the hundreds of thousands of visitors with your product or brand message” in its PowerPoint presentation explaining the possibilities to apply.
    Evidently, this news site less promotes quality journalism and doesn’t seem as implicated in “global development” as The Guardian.
    For example, the latter’s most recent article concerning Boko Haram’s insurgency detailed the impact of the terrorist group on the Nigerian population whereas Daily Trust most usually reports on official or rumored reports on Boko Haram actions, most recently about 3 soldiers being turned in to the Nigerian government by an Emir. Interestingly though, an usually lengthy article (for the news site’s standards) analyzes child soldiers’ new fight following Boko Haram’s decline. This article breaks the Daily Trust’s usual mold, usually informative but concise and rarely opiniated or argumentative.

  24. Billy McGovern -- Israel-Palestine (sorry for late update)
    “US moves to block Salam Fayyad as UN Libya envoy”, Al Jazeera
    “Israel hails new era at UN as US blocks Palestinian from key post” Times of Israel

    The US halted the appointment of former Palestinian PM Salam Fayyad as the UN envoy to Libya on Friday, stating that in doing so they were supporting their ally Israel. In the words of US Ambassador Nikki Haley, the US will act to support Israel as the UN is “unfairly biased in favor of Palestinian Authority.” This action shocked many, as Fayyad not only was elevated in Palestinian authority by the Bush administration but is also universally liked by UN diplomats. The Israeli UN Ambassador Danny Danon described this action as the “beginning of a new era, where the US stands firmly and apologetically beside Israel.”
    The tiles of both articles primarily highlight different standpoints: Times of Israel states the reaction of Israel, “hailing” the refusal of Fayyad, as well as calling this a “new era” where the US will help them protect their interests (“key post.”) Al Jazeera describes the move on the part of the US, without stating any politic or economic agenda.
    The presentation of the article also marks a contrast between both news sources, as Times of Israel presents photos of Danny Danon and Nikki Haley whereas Al Jazeera has pictures of Fayyad. This shows the inclination on the part of both sources.
    Al Jazeera describes the move on the part of the US, using Palestinian quotes and observations such as the fact that Palestine has been recognized by the vast majority of UN nations to underline the in their opinion unjustified treatment by the US, showing their pro-Arab agenda.
    Times of Israel feautures almost exclusively quotes from Israeli and American politicians, also stating that Israel has complained about the vast majority of Palestinian votes in the UN. This also puts forward their standpoint, motivated by Israeli interests.

  25. Anna - War in Yemen

    Press TV and MEMO both cover the Houthi missile shooting on Riyadh of February 6th. They are seen to be surprisingly objective, though do show their loyalty to the opposite sides of the Yemeni conflict through subtle hints.

    Press TV’s article is surprisingly tame. This source has a tendency to be violent towards the enemy while being quite selfless concerning their achievements. They do this to rally the most readers possible, showing themselves being passionate but unselfish. Nonetheless, they do seem quite proud of this achievement, showing that they too are capable of retaliating efficiently. By depicting the missile attack so much, focusing on the precise distance to Riyadh, their target, and confirming over and over they managed to hit it, they want to show they too detain a certain power, which is also put forward by the menace in the introductory sentence.

    They aim to show their strength, but also their pacifism, as they use the words “first time”, highlighting this as being their first real attack on the Saudi Arabian capital, unlike their opponents. It is a show of restraint and respect of some sort, but can be also seen as ominous, a threat concerning possible coming attacks.

    They finish the article with a broad recapitulative of the war, and, as always, show the Saudis as the unfair and violent attackers, to blame for Yemen’s poverty (“impoverished”). Saudi Arabia is shown to have undermined the Houthi movement, which seems overly pompous after reading this article.

    MEMO’s article, as always, is seen to be quite subjective, but hints to its alliances subtly. They show the Houthi’s pride and passion concerning the conflict through the statement they made following the attack. It is ennobled and the reader might see it to be quite ludicrous after reading the article.

    The article shows the little effect the missile had on Riyadh itself, showing the Houthi’s hubris as ridiculous. They also hint the attack may have been staged through the use of the sentence: “or the attack did not take place”. The Houthi here are seen to be arrogant, as they seem to have achieved so little.

    Both sources cover the same event, Press TV showing the Houthi’s achievements in a positive light. On the other hand, MEMO, seeming objective, hints to the Houthi’s childish and ludicrous behaviour concerning this inefficient attack.

    Press TV:


  26. Pierre-Malo Vienney -- Violence in DRC

    Africatime is a Congolese newspaper that gives daily updates about the main events that occurred especially in DRC. In terms of layout, the upper presentation bar shows the name of the newspaper in white letters on a flashy blue background. The logo is an image of the African continent filled in with the DRC flag colors. On the homepage, the headlines are presented one after the other and illustrated with a picture that grabs the attention. The title giving the main topic and the beginning of the article is shown on the side. On the left side of the website, links give you information about international news, local news or polls. Africatime is frequently read on internet because it was named “Best of the web”: “Thanks to you, Africatime was named "Best of the web" by Best of Web's Magazine.” In addition, it is mentioned that Africatime made a headline of Le Monde. This shows that this news source is legitimate and gives reliable information.
    News24 is a South African news source that seems to give daily updates about events all around the world. In opposition with Africatime, News24 can have an objective point of view on events that do not happen in South Africa. The website presentation is a lot more complicated than Africatime. White, blue and gray are the dominant colors. The website gives information about many different topics from business to lifestyle, and accumulates many writings on the homepage. The weather forecast in the upper right corner implies that it is a daily read newspaper. On the right side, pop-ups and advertisements appear. Articles are posted by, it is a group of publishers, editors and journalists who wish “to inform, entertain, educate and connect people through print, digital and ecommerce platforms. “

  27. Pierre-Malo Vienney -- Violence in DRC

    Africatime is a Congolese newspaper that gives daily updates about the main events that occurred especially in DRC. In terms of layout, the upper presentation bar shows the name of the newspaper in white letters on a flashy blue background. The logo is an image of the African continent filled in with the DRC flag colors. On the homepage, the headlines are presented one after the other and illustrated with a picture that grabs the attention. The title giving the main topic and the beginning of the article is shown on the side. On the left side of the website, links give you information about international news, local news or polls. Africatime is frequently read on internet because it was named “Best of the web”: “Thanks to you, Africatime was named "Best of the web" by Best of Web's Magazine.” In addition, it is mentioned that Africatime made a headline of Le Monde. This shows that this news source is legitimate and gives reliable information.
    News24 is a South African news source that seems to give daily updates about events all around the world. In opposition with Africatime, News24 can have an objective point of view on events that do not happen in South Africa. The website presentation is a lot more complicated than Africatime. White, blue and gray are the dominant colors. The website gives information about many different topics from business to lifestyle, and accumulates many writings on the homepage. The weather forecast in the upper right corner implies that it is a daily read newspaper. On the right side, pop-ups and advertisements appear. Articles are posted by, it is a group of publishers, editors and journalists who wish “to inform, entertain, educate and connect people through print, digital and ecommerce platforms. “

  28. Each of my sources talk about al-Shabaab but they do not have one specific event in common. All Africa’s homepage has many pictures with their titles. If a specific subject is searched then there are only titles that come up. Each title is in blue which attracts the eye and the title is a short sentence with key information that makes the reader want to read it. Each article is short and only gives the important information. It regularly reports the movements of either camp ( al-Shabaab, AMISOM, Kenyan troops, and others), as well as the number of people that have died. My guess is that the people reading this are locals and they just want to know what is happening, and more importantly if there is something happening close to them. My other source, Garowe Online’s homepage also has pictures with titles underneath them. Garowe Online concentrate themselves on Somalia and nothing else, and they talk about politics as well as the battles between the various camps. They do elaborate a bit more in their articles compared to the other one but it is still a listing of information. In each of their articles they include a quote said by an official or a civilian, and they always state where they are getting their information from. This source is also probably read by the locals to get information quickly and know about what is going on around them.